DREAM DRUGS: Drugs at the Clinical Stage — In the Pipeline

The Biotech-100 Index includes 100 small cap biotechnology stocks whose product drug pipeline contain at least one drug in either phase II and/or Phase III clinical development. There is a 90% chance of rejection in early-stage phase I clinical trials; a 50% chance in phase II; 20% in phase III; and 10% post-phase III. Companies that are in phase II and III tend to show great promise but still have a high degree of volatiliy.

Pipeline Drugs Company Symbol
Application
ABX-EGF (panitumumab) Abgenix ABGX targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr), which is over-expressed in a variety of cancers including lung cancer, breast cancer, bladder, pancreatic, colorectal cancer, kidney and head and neck cancer.
ABX-MA1 Abgenix ABGX ABX-MA1 targets a protein called MUC18, a cell-surface adhesion molecule that is highly expressed on metastatic melanoma cells but not on normal skin cells
ACP-103 Acadia ACAD Parkinson’s Disease, adjunctive therapy forschizophrenia (Hallucinations, Psychoses)
Onconase (ranpirnase) AlfaCell ACEL Ribonuclease anti-cancer drug,
Entereg (alvimopan) Adolor ADLR pain management of POI and OBD
lidocaine patch Adolor ADLR postoperative incisional pain
perifosine Æterna Zentaris Inc AEZS Multiple myeloma and advanced metastatic colorectal cancer — multiple cancers
SolorelTM (AEZS-130) Æterna Zentaris Inc AEZS Growth hormone secretagogue– potential applications for the treatment of cachexia
AEZS-108 Æterna Zentaris Inc AEZS Ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer
AG-858 Antigenics Inc. AGEN Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
Oncophage Antigenics Inc. AGEN Metastatic melanoma, Kidney cancer (renal cell carcinoma)
AG-702 Antigenics Inc. AGEN Genital herpes
V -Protectants® (AGI-1067) Atherogenics AGIX chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis andasthma
Vivitrex Alkermes ALKS Alchol Dependence
Medisorb Alkermes ALKS Diabetes
AIR Insulin Alkermes ALKS Diabetes
AIR hGH Alkermes ALKS GHD
AIR Epinephrine Alkermes ALKS Anaphylaxis
Pexelizumab Alexion ALXN Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Acute Myocardial Infarction
Eculizumab Alexion ALXN Nephritis, Dermatomyositis , Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglinuria
Efaproxiral Allos Therapeutics ALTH Brain metastases from breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer
PDX (pralatrexate) Allos Therapeutics ALTH non-small cell lung cancer, Mesothelioma, non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
SYMLIN® (pramlintide acetate) Amylin AMLN synthetic version of human amylin -glucose control with type 1 diabetes
exenatide (synthetic exendin-4) Amylin AMLN type 2 diabetes
Isatoribine (ANA245) Anadys ANDS Hepatitis C
ANA 380 Anadys ANDS Hepatitis B
Oral Prodrug ANA971 Anadys ANDS reduce the risk of HCV relapse
AMD3100 AnorMED AOM.TO stem cell mobilizer
AMD070 AnorMED AOM.TO chemokine inhibitor for HIV
Insegia(G17DT immunogen) Aphton Corp APHT cancer and gastrointestinal disease
AP23573 Ariad ARIA solid tumor and blood malignancies
TP10 Avant AVAN Cardiac Surgery
CETi-I Avant AVAN Cholesterol Management
CholeraGarde Avant AVAN Cholera
Ty800 Avant AVAN Typhoid Fever
Injectable Anthrax Avant AVAN Anthrax
Therapore Avant AVAN HIV
Resten-NG Avi Biopharma AVII cardiovascular restenosis
Avicine Avi Biopharma AVII vaccine — anti-hCG immune response targeting hCG-producing cancer cells
NeuGene compounds Avi Biopharma AVII anti-sense drugs for cancer, polycystic kidney disease, and viral diseases
Neurodex Avanir AVN pseudobulbar affect, neuropathic pain
Avanir Avanir AVN Asthma
AV201 Avigin AVGN severe Parkinson’s disease
Phenserine Axonyx AXYX Alzheimer’s disease
Theratope Vaccine Biomira BIOM colorectal, metastatic breast cancer
BLP25 Liposome Vaccine Biomira BIOM Prostate, non-small cell lung cancer
Modrenal Bioenvision BIVN Prostate Cancer
Clofarabine (CLOLAR) Bioenvision BIVN pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia, solid Tumors
Velostan Bioenvision BIVN post-menopausal advanced breast cancer,bladder cancer
virostat Bioenvision BIVN hepatitis C
GVAX (vaccine) Cell Genesys CEGE Prostate, lung, pancreatic, leukemia, myeloma
CG7870 Oncolytic Virus Therapy Cell Genesys CEGE Prostate cancer
Daptomycin (cubicin) Cubist CBST soft tissue infection, infective endocarditis
HepeX-B Cubist CBST prevention of infection by hepatitis B in liver transplant
Oracea Collagenex Pharmaceuticals Inc CGPI rosacea
E2F Decoy Corgentech CGTK Coronary Bypass Graft, Arterio-Venous Graft
mifepristone ( Corlux) Corcept CORT Psychotic major depression, Alzheimers
Ventavis CoTherix Inc CTRX pulmonary arterial hypertension
Ranexa CV Therapeutics Inc CVTX Chronic Angina
Regadenoson CV Therapeutics Inc CVTX Myocardial Perfusion Imaging
Tecadenoson CV Therapeutics Inc CVTX (PSVT Atrial Fibrillation)
Adentri CV Therapeutics Inc CVTX congestive heart failure (CHF)
Milnacipran Cypress Biosciences CYPB fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and related chronic pain conditions
SB-715992 Cytokinetics CYTK multiple forms of cancer, including combination therapy
provenge Dendreon DNDN prostate cancer vaccine
APC8024(Neuvenge) Dendreon DNDN HER-2/neu positive cancers, including breast,ovarian and colorectal cancers
indiplon DOV Pharmaceuticals DOVP insomnia
bicifadine DOV Pharmaceuticals DOVP pain
ocinaplon DOV Pharmaceuticals DOVP generalized anxiety disorder
DOV 216,303 DOV Pharmaceuticals DOVP depression, anxiety and substance abuse
DOV Diltiazen DOV Pharmaceuticals DOVP Angina and Hypertension
DX-88 Dyax DYAX hereditary angioedema (HAE)
DX-890 Dyax DYAX cystic fibrosis (CF),chronic obstructive airways diseases
Thelin (sitaxsentan) Encysive Pharmaceuticals ENCY pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)
BIMOSIAMOSE Encysive Pharmaceuticals ENCY inhaled therapy for asthma, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis
TBC3711 Encysive Pharmaceuticals ENCY endothelin A antagonis
Panzem (2-methoxyestradiol) EntreMed ENMD cancer
XL119 Exelixis EXEL bile duct tumors
Macugen(pegaptanib sodium injection) Eyetech Pharmaceuticals EYET wet form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
FM-VP4 Forbes Medi-Tech FMTI cholesterol-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic
Genasense® (oblimersen sodium Genta GNTA melanoma, lung and prostate cancers
Ganite® (gallium nitrate injection). Genta GNTA cancer related hypercalcemia
TNFerade GenVec GNVC Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene
TVAX Telomerase Cancer Vaccine (TVAX) Geron GERN prostate cancer
Aquavan Injection Guilford Pharmaceuticals GLFD mild to moderate sedation for non-invasive procedures
GPI 1485 Guilford Pharmaceuticals GLFD Impotence, Prostate Cancer
GPI 5693 Guilford Pharmaceuticals GLFD neuropathic pain
MyVax Genitope Corp GTOP idotypic vaccine for cancer follicular non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (f-NHL).
ACAPODEME GTX Inc. GTXI Prevention of prostate cancer in men with high grade PIN
Andarine GTX Inc. GTXI Cachexia from various types of cancer
Ostarine GTX Inc. GTXI andropause
HE2100 NEUMUNE Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals HEPH protecting the body’s bone marrow from acute radiation syndrom
PHOSPHONOL Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals HEPH protect against DNA mutations (mutagenesis)– from radiation
(HE2000) IMMUNITIN Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals HEPH Malaria and HIV and preclinical benefit in a number of tuberculosis model
LymphoStat-B Human Genome Sciences HGSI drugs discovered through genomics-based research
Albuferon Human Genome Sciences HGSI hepatitis C, b?? and a broad range of cancers
HGS-ETRI Human Genome Sciences HGSI apoptosis, in cancer cells.
HGS-TR2J Human Genome Sciences HGSI apoptosis, in cancer cells.
480848 Human Genome Sciences HGSI inhibits atherosclerotic plaques
IC485 ICOS ICOS Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Tadalafil ICOS ICOS Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
FluINsure ID Biomedical Corp IDBE vaccine prevention of influenza (flu)
StreptAvax ID Biomedical Corp IDBE vaccine for prevention of diseases caused by group A streptococcus in children
PPV ID Biomedical Corp IDBE vaccine for the prevention of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus)
Pagocione Indevus Pharmaceuticals IDEV Stuttering
PRO2000 Indevus Pharmaceuticals IDEV HIV and STD Prevention
IP 751 Indevus Pharmaceuticals IDEV Pain and Inflammation
Aminocandin Indevus Pharmaceuticals IDEV Serious Fungal Infections
HuN901-DM1 Immunogen IMGN cancers that express the CanAg antigen
MLN2704 Immunogen IMGN -targets the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)
Cantuzumab mertansine Immunogen IMGN cancers that express the CanAg antigen
Reverset Incyte Corp INCY HIV
CCR2 Antagonists Incyte Corp INCY Rheumatoid Arthritis, MS, Neuropathic Pain, Atherosclerosis
Sheddase Inhibitors Incyte Corp INCY Cancer
ADVEXIN Introgen Therapeutics INGN Cancer ?? Advexin (adenoviral p53) —bladder cancer--gene therapy -PI
INGN 241 Introgen Therapeutics INGN tumor suppressor product candidate
INGN 225 Introgen Therapeutics INGN tumor vaccine
Visicol InKline Pharamceuticals INKP Constipation
INKP-102 InKline Pharamceuticals INKP Colon cleansing prior to colonoscopy
IB-Stat InKline Pharamceuticals INKP Symptoms associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
CEA-Scan Immunomedics IMMU targets tumors that have carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) on their cell membrane
antisense drugs ISIS Pharmaceuticals ISIS ulcerative colitis, diabetes, MS, cardiovascular disease, cancer, psoriasis
diquafosol tetrasodium (INS365 Ophthalmic) Inspire Pharamceuticals ISPH for the treatment of dry eye disease
INS37217– Respiratory (denufosol tetrasodium) Inspire Pharamceuticals ISPH cystic fibrosis, retinal disease
IN50589 Inspire Pharamceuticals ISPH Antiplatelet for Platelet Inhibition
Sulodexide (KRX-101) Keryx Biopharmaceuticals KERX diabetic nephropathy
Perifosine (KRX-0401) Keryx Biopharmaceuticals KERX multiple forms of cancer
KS 01-019 Kos Pharmaceuticals KOSP dyslipidemia
KS 01-018 Kos Pharmaceuticals KOSP Periperhal Arterial Disease
Azmacort Kos Pharmaceuticals KOSP treatment of asthma as prophylactic therapy
Targretin Ligand Pharmaceuticals LGND non-small cell lung cancer
ONTAK Ligand Pharmaceuticals LGND B- and T-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukemia,
Targretin gel Ligand Pharmaceuticals LGND hand dermatitis
LJP 394 La Jolla Pharmaceuticals LJPC Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic Lupus Nephritis
Riquent® (abetimus sodium La Jolla Pharmaceuticals LJPC systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Ceplene Maxim Pharmaceuticals MAXM Advanced Melanoma, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Renal Cell Carcinoma, Hepatitis C
Medarex Antibodies Medarex MEDX cancer, inflammation, autoimmune and infectious diseases
Anidulafungin Vicuron Pharmaceuticals MICU anti-fungal
Dalbavancin Vicuron Pharmaceuticals MICU glycopeptide class of antibiotics (hospital infections)
Oxazolidinones Vicuron Pharmaceuticals MICU most-difficult-to-treat, multi-drug-resistant bacteria
Deformylase Inhibitors Vicuron Pharmaceuticals MICU antibiotic — respiratory tract infections
INTEGRILIN® (EPTIFIBATIDE) Millenium Pharmaceuticals MLNM cardiovascular
VELCADE® (bortezomib)- Millenium Pharmaceuticals MLNM lung, breast, prostate cancers
MLN1202,MLN2704 Millenium Pharmaceuticals MLNM Rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis,inflammation
Technosphere Insulin System MannKind Corp MNKD pulmonary delivery system for diabetes
Enoximone Myogen MYOG Advanced Chronic Heart Failure
Ambristentan Myogen MYOG Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Darusentan Myogen MYOG Uncontrolled Hypertension
Flurizan Myriad Genetics Inc MYGN Alzheimer’s, cancer
StaphVAX Nabi Biopharmaceuticals NABI Vaccine for staphylococcus infections
NicVax Nabi Biopharmaceuticals NABI Vaccine for smoking cessation vaccine
Civacir Nabi Biopharmaceuticals NABI Hepatitis C antibody-based therapies
IL13-PE38QQR NeoPharm Inc NEOL Glioblastoma Multiforme brain tumor
Liposomal SN38 NeoPharm Inc NEOL Advanced cancers; including colorectal and lung
Liposomal c-raf Antisense Oligonucleotide NeoPharm Inc NEOL Advanced cancers; including pancreatic (monotherapy and combination with radiation/chemotherapy)
Liposomal Paclitaxel-Easy-to-use NeoPharm Inc NEOL Advanced cancers; including breast cancer, lung and ovarian
Indiplon Neurocrine Biosciences NBIX insomnia via inhibitory neurotransmitterGABA
CRF Receptor Antagonis Neurocrine Biosciences NBIX Anxiety and depression
NBL- 5788 Neurocrine Biosciences NBIX Multiple Sclerosis
Urocortin 2 Neurocrine Biosciences NBIX Acute congestive heart failure (CHF)
GnRH antagonists Neurocrine Biosciences NBIX Endometriosis
PREOS® (recombinant human parathyroid hormone) NPS Pharmaceuticals NPSP treatment of osteoporosis
Teduglutide NPS Pharmaceuticals NPSP gastrointestinal disorders including Short Bowel Syndrome
Preotact NPS Pharmaceuticals NPSP Osteoperosis
Calcilytics NPS Pharmaceuticals NPSP Osteoperosis
GlyT-1 NPS Pharmaceuticals NPSP Schizophrenia
Fibrillex Neurochem Inc. NRMX AA Amyloidosis
Alzhemed Neurochem Inc. NRMX Alzheimer’s Disease –inhibit the AmyloidCascade
Cerebril Neurochem Inc. NRMX Hemorrhagic stroke due to cerebral amyloidangiopathy
Memantine (Namenda) Neurobiological Tech NTII progressive neurological impairment due to neuronal injur
XERECEPT — natural human peptide CRF Neurobiological Tech NTII inhibitor of swelling, or edema
VIPRINEX™ (ancrod) Neurobiological Tech NTII stroke patients — anticoagulation
BiDil NitroMed NTMD Heart failure, or end-stage cardiovascular disease
Alfimeprase Nuvelo NUVO thrombolytic agent or blood clot dissolver
rNAPc2 Nuvelo NUVO Factor VIIa / Tissue Factor Inhibitor
ARC183 Nuvelo NUVO DNA-based direct thrombin inhibitor–anticoagulant / anti-thrombotic
BAY 43-9006 Onyx Pharmaceuticals ONXX advanced renal (kidney) cancer
Ramoplanin Oscient Pharmaceuticals OSCI Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
FACTIVE Oscient Pharmaceuticals OSCI Intravenous– Bacterial Infections
CA4P (combretastatin)– Oxigene OXGN Vascular targeting agent ??CK PHASE
Motexafin gadolinium Pharmacyclics Inc. PCYC anti-cancer product
Motexafin lutetium Pharmacyclics Inc PCYC reduce or eliminate “vulnerable plaque ”
Apan Praecis Pharmaceuticals PRCS Alzheimer’s Disease
PPI-2458 Praecis Pharmaceuticals PRCS Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma/RA
MNTX Progenics Pharmaceuticals PGNX Advanced medical ilness, post-operative ileus, chronic pain
GMX Progenics Pharmaceuticals PGNX Melanoma Cancer
PSMA Progenics Pharmaceuticals PGNX prostate cancer
PRO542 Progenics Pharmaceuticals PGNX HIV
PRO 140 Progenics Pharmaceuticals PGNX HIV
Trexima POZEN Inc. POZN migraine pain
OXYTREX Pain Therapeutics Inc. PTIE severe chronic pain, such as low back, osteoarthritic pain or cancer pain
REMOXY Pain Therapeutics Inc. PTIE proprietary abuse-resistant version of time-release oxycodone
PTI-901 Pain Therapeutics Inc. PTIE chronic Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).
AXOKINE IL-1 Regeneron Pharmaceuticals REGN potential treatment of obesity
VEGF Trap Regeneron Pharmaceuticals REGN inihibits tumor blood vessel growth
L-4/13 Trap Regeneron Pharmaceuticals REGN treatment in allergy and asthma
IL-1 Trap Regeneron Pharmaceuticals REGN decreases inflammation and blocks cartilage erosion in the joint — Rhematoid Arthritis
ZADAXIN Sciclone Pharmaceuticals SCLN viral infections– hepatitis C, and cancer
SCV-07 Sciclone Pharmaceuticals SCLN fight infection
SGN-30 Seattle Genetics SGEN Hodgkin’s disease and some types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
SGN-15 Seattle Genetics SGEN non-small cell lung cancer
SGN-40 Seattle Genetics SGEN multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin’slymphoma
XIFAXAN™ (rifaximin) Salix Pharmaceuticals SLXP gastrointestinal- selective, oral antibiotic
ZEGERID Santarus Inc SNTS Heartburn/GERD, Erosive esophagitis, Duodenal ulcers
Orathecin Supergen Inc. SUPG pancreatic cancer
Avicine™ Supergen Inc. SUPG colorectal cancer
Satraplatin Spectrum Pharmaceuticals SPPI Prostate Cancer
SPI-153 Spectrum Pharmaceuticals SPPI Hormone Depenmdent Prostate Cancer
EOquin Spectrum Pharmaceuticals SPPI Bladder Cancer, Radiation Sensitizer
Elsamitrucin Spectrum Pharmaceuticals SPPI Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
prosaptide Savient SVNT peripheral neuropathic pain
puricase Savient SVNT symptomatic gout
fibrimage Savient SVNT diagnostic agent for the detection of deep veinthrombosis
I2S Transkaryotic Therapies TKTX Hunter syndrome
GA-GCB Transkaryotic Therapies TKTX Gaucher disease
TELCYTA (TLK286) Telik Inc. TELK advanced ovarian cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (a selective apoptotic agent)
TELINTRA Telik Inc. TELK myelodysplastic syndrome –Bone marrow stimulant
TNX -355 Tanox Inc. TNOX HIV
T-1249 Trimeris Inc. TRMS HIV
Pivanex Titan Pharmaceuticals TTP Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
DITPA Titan Pharmaceuticals Congestive Heart Failure
Probuphine Titan Pharmaceuticals Opiate addition
Spheramine Titan Pharmaceuticals Advanced Parkinson’s
Iloperidone Titan Pharmaceuticals Schizophrenia
Gallium Maltolate Titan Pharmaceuticals Bone Disease
OvaRex United Therapeutics Corp UTHR Ovarian Cancer
Remodulin United Therapeutics Corp UTHR Critical limb ischemia (CLI)
UT-231B United Therapeutics Corp UTHR Hepatitis C
Celacade Vasogen Inc. VSGN Chronic Heart Failure, Periperheral Arterial Disease
VP025 Vasogen Inc. VSGN Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
VX-385 Vertex Pharmaceuticals VRTX HIV infection
Merimepodib Vertex Pharmaceuticals VRTX hepatitis C
VX-950 Vertex Pharmaceuticals VRTX hepatitis C
VX-765 Vertex Pharmaceuticals VRTX cytokine inhibitor of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE)
VX-702 Vertex Pharmaceuticals VRTX acute coronary syndromes
Pralnacasan Vertex Pharmaceuticals VRTX inflammatory diseases
VX944, VX630 Vertex Pharmaceuticals VRTX Cancer
DNA Vaccines Vical Inc VICL malaria, cytomegalovirus, eboa, west nile virus, hiv, hepatitis
Avanafil Vivus Inc. VVUS erectile dysfunction
ALISTA Vivus Inc. VVUS female sexual arousal disorder
Testosterone MDTS Vivus Inc. VVUS low sexual desire
Evamist Vivus Inc. VVUS symptoms associated with menopause
Neuprex XOMA LTD XOMA immunologic and inflammatory disorders, cancer and infectious diseases
XMP.629 XOMA LTD XOMA Acne
MLN2222 XOMA LTD XOMA coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients.
TransMID Xenova Group XNVA Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)
XR303 Xenova Group XNVA Pancreatic Cancer
XR5944/XR11576 Xenova Group XNVA Solid Tumors
TA-CD Vaccine Xenova Group XNVA Cocaine addition
TA_NIC Vaccine Xenova Group XNVA Nicotine Addiction
Recombinant human Thrombin Zymogenetics Inc. ZGEN control of bleeding associated with various surgical procedures
-TACI-Ig Zymogenetics Inc. ZGEN autoimmune diseases and for advanced B-cell malignancies
Interleukin 21 (IL-21) Zymogenetics Inc. ZGEN cancer

source: http://www.pipelinedrugs.com/

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Tuberculosis drug can improve effect of cognitive behavioral therapy

A new study from Sweden’s Karolinska Institutet shows that the effect of internet-based CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy) for people with people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be boosted with a drug called d-cycloserine, which has long been used to treat TB. According to the results, which are published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry, this enhancing effect is counteracted by antidepressants.

By Aidsmam.com

By Aidsmam.com

“These types of drugs are sometimes called cognitive enhancers, as they affect specific brain processes that can speed up and boost the effects of psychotherapy,” says Dr Christian Rück, psychiatrist and researcher, who conducted the study with his colleagues at Karolinska Institutet’s Department of Clinical Neuroscience. “You could say that it’s to CBT what spinach is to Popeye.”

The active therapeutic component of CBT is based on the concept of exposure or extinction, whereby the individual puts him/herself in feared situations that evoke feelings of discomfort or anxiety and remains there until the sensation wanes. D-cycloserine (DCS) is an old tuberculosis drug that also affects one of the brain’s most common receptors, the NMDA receptor. Previous studies have shown, for example, that DCS can amplify the effect of CBT if taken just prior to exposure to the fear-inducing stimulus.

In the present study, the researchers tried adding DCS to online CBT for people with OCD. Previous research had shown that DCS can speed up the therapeutic effect of CBT for this disorder, but no study had been large enough to demonstrate lasting effects once the therapy has finished. The study randomly assigned 128 people with an OCD diagnosis to either a DCS or a placebo group.

The initial analysis indicated that while there was no difference between DCS and placebo, the effect of online CBT was considerable. In their subsequent analysis, the team therefore took into account whether the participants were also taking antidepressants. Doing so, they found that those not on antidepressants responded much better to DCS.

“This tells us that the mechanism for DCS can be affected by antidepressants or vice versa and that it might one day be possible to use DCS and similar substances to boost the effect of CBT,” says Dr Rück. “Our study is the largest to date on DCS and OCD, but more research needs to be done to substantiate these positive effects and to fully understand and utilise the biological mechanisms behind effective CBT therapy.”

Source: Science Daily

Pactamycin analogs offer new, gentler approach to cancer treatment

Researchers at Oregon State University are pursuing a new concept in treatment of epithelial cancer, especially head and neck cancer, by using two promising “analogs” of an old compound that was once studied as a potent anti-tumor agent, but long ago abandoned because it was too toxic.

CancerMedication_013013-617x416

By Redorbit.com

The analogs are more highly selective than the parent compound, pactamycin, which originally was found to kill all cells, from bacteria to mammals, by inhibiting their protein synthesis.

The pactamycin analogs, which were developed with biosynthetic engineering, also offer a different approach toward cancer therapy — an effort to essentially put cancer cells to sleep, instead of killing them. If successful, this trend may herald a new future in “kinder and gentler” cancer treatments.

Findings on this promising approach to cancer were just published in PLOS One, in work supported by the National Institute of Health and other agencies.

The effects of the pactamycin analogs, called TM-025 and TM-026, were characterized in head and neck cancer cell lines, which cause the eighth most common cancer in the world. But they may have applications to a wider range of cancers, the researchers said, particularly melanoma.

“A traditional view of chemotherapy is that you try to completely kill cancer cells and destroy tumors,” said Arup Indra, an associate professor in the OSU College of Pharmacy and one of the lead authors on the study. “Sometimes this is effective, sometimes not as much. An alternative approach is to cause rapid cell aging and induce premature senescence, which we believe could become a new frontier in cancer drug development.”

A senescent cancer cell, Indra said, doesn’t usually die, but the growth of it and the larger tumor is slowed or stops, and it continues to live in a vegetative state, almost like being asleep. Such an approach can be an alternative way to control cancer without completely killing it, which may help reduce problems with resistance that can quickly develop to chemotherapeutic drugs. And it also avoids some of the most toxic and debilitating side effects of cancer chemotherapies, which are often caused by cell death.

The new findings showed that these analogs of pactamycin largely stopped cancer cell proliferation and growth, causing cells to age and lose their ability to divide and grow. These effects are partly mediated by tumor suppressor p53, which is frequently mutated in human cancers. They do not yet form the basis for a therapy, researchers said, because methods must still be perfected to get them more selectively into the cancer cells.

“With further research we hope to create a nontoxic nanocarrier that could provide targeted delivery of the TM-025 and TM-026 analogs specifically to cancer cells,” said Gitali Indra, an OSU assistant professor and also a lead and corresponding author on the study. “In some cases, such as oral cancer, it may also be possible to use topical treatments. But this approach should have significant promise if we can develop techniques to adequately target the cancer cells.”


Story Source: Science Daily

New drug combination could extend life of cystic fibrosis patients

3D4M000006003

By 3d4image.com

An international research team has demonstrated that a combination of two different drugs targeting the most common genetic cause of cystic fibrosis helped to improve lung function and reduce the rate of pulmonary exacerbations.

“These results represent a further major advance in finding treatments which correct the basic problem in cystic fibrosis and improve the lives of patients living with the condition,” reports Prof. Stuart Elborn, a co-author of the study from Queen’s University in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary condition that causes cells producing mucus, sweat and digestive juices to secrete thicker and more sticky fluids than normal. These secretions often restrict and block ducts and tubes, particularly in the lungs and pancreas, severely inhibiting the lungs and digestive system.

The disorder is a life-threatening one. In the lungs, thick mucus reduces lung function and leads to chronic infection while in the pancreas the mucus prohibits enzymes from reaching the gut to enable the complete digestion of food.

Cystic fibrosis is caused by genetic mutations that fall into six different functional categories. The most common therapeutic target for the condition is the F508del mutation – almost half of patients with cystic fibrosis in the US have two copies of this mutation.

One drug, ivacaftor, is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of a less common cystic fibrosis mutation, but had not previously been found effective in treating patients with two copies of the F508del mutation.

However, a phase 2 study indicated that combining ivacaftor with another drug called lumacaftor could be beneficial to patients with this mutation. As a result, the researchers conducted two phase 3 trials to evaluate how effective this drug combination would be.

Study findings represent ‘an exciting step forward’

A total of 1,108 patients with the most common form of cystic fibrosis participated in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Participants were aged 12 and above and were treated for 24 weeks in centers across the world.

The researchers found that treatment with the new drug combination led to a reduction in the number of hospital courses of antibiotic treatment required, alongside improvements in breathing test results, weight and quality of life.

Improvements in the nutritional status of the patients with cystic fibrosis were hypothesized by the researchers to reflect either better caloric absorption or a reduction in energy expenditure attributed to ameliorating the effects of lung disease.

“Just a few years ago, ivacaftor became the only FDA-approved drug for the genetic defect in cystic fibrosis, but it only works for genetic mutations found in a small portion of cystic fibrosis patients,” states study author Dr. Susanna McColley, professor of pediatrics at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, IL.

“Our study showed that combining ivacaftor with lumacaftor helps patients with the most common cystic fibrosis mutation. This is an exciting step forward.”

Dr. McColley says that more analyses and longer-term data are required for the team to ascertain whether this treatment can alter the course of cystic fibrosis and further extend the life expectancy of patients with the condition. At present, the median life expectancy for patients with the disease is 37 years.

Last week, the FDA Pulmonary-Allergy Drugs Advisory Committee met to consider the results of the study, published in New England Journal of Medicine. Final approval from the committee is still pending.

Previously, Medical News Today reported on a study describing the role of “mini-lungs” in cystic fibrosis research. A team at the University of Cambridge in the UK has been able to successfully create organoid models in the laboratory as a new way to research and test new drugs.

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Weekly Care Likely to Better Diabetic’s Health

Eli Lilly the world’s first insulin maker has been entitled by the

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European Commission for marketing Trulicity (dulaglutide), a novel injectable treatment for adults with type 2 diabetes. The once-weekly Trulicity may affect the Novo Nordisk’s widely used blockbuster Victoza (liraglutide) as it has demonstrated clinical superiority however there are safety concerns based on pre-clinical lab data which may result in an uncertain sales outcome in view of upcoming approvals from other companies.
Trulicity is a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) designed in an easy-to-use single-dose pen and can be taken any time of day, with or without meals. Studies reveal that Trulicity can help in lowering the A1C and blood sugar numbers and may even help to lose some weight. GLP-1 is a natural hormone, in prodding the body to release insulin when patients eat. Like other insulin products Trulicity can cause hypoglycemia, nausea, fainting and other symptoms and is contraindicated in thyroid patients.
Diabetes (type 1 and 2) is a chronic disease in which the body either does not properly produce, or use, the hormone insulin. It victimizes 29 million Americans and 382 million people around the globe with 90-95% occurrence of Type 2.
Launched in 2009, Victoza reached 2.3 million patients globally with a blockbuster sale of $418 million in 2010 and doubling to $1.04 billion in the first half of 2013. The analysts estimate the sales to quadruple to $4.07 billion in 2018. Tim Anderson, Bernstein analyst forecasts the sale of Trulicity to reach $1.3 billion by 2020. The current market of GLP-1 is around $3 billion.
Last year GlaxoSmithKline’s Tanzeum was approved by the FDA which is also a once-weekly GLP-1 agonist but unlike Trulicity Tanzeum failed to show superiority to Victoza. AstraZeneca after acquiring the Byetta from the dead alliance of the inventors Amylin and Eli Lilly launched Bydureon, which is another once-weekly treatment but it failed due to complicated delivery system, however approval for a new delivery system for Bydureon was received earlier this year.  Merck’s DPP-4 inhibitor Januvia, Sanofi’s Lyxumia (lixisenatide) and AstraZeneca’s once-a-month version in the pipeline is yet another reason for Trulicity to worry.
Although While Trulicity has been found as non-inferiorsuperior to blockbuster Victoza in head-to-head trials, its fate is dilemmatic with robust rivals anduncertain as there is a major concern of drug safety as per its black box warning regardingdue to increased risk for thyroid C-cell tumors based on pre-clinical studies. The stakes are high and the diabetes patient population is large so the outcome remains to be seen specially in view of the oncoming competition.

Author: Toshit

Novel Contraceptive Sayana Press Takes off For Developing World

Novel Contraceptive Sayana Press Takes off for Developing world
Pfizer and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation are working together to bring affordable injectable

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contraceptives within access of 225 million women in over 60 countries including countries in Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia and Latin America.
Several groups, including the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation, as well as the United States Agency for International Development, will help subsidize the cost and assist in introducing it in countries around the globe.
Under the plan, Pfizer will expand the distribution of the Sayana Press, a version of Depo-Provera which requires lower doses to be effective. The recommended dose is 150 mg of Depo-Provera every 3 months (13 weeks) administered by deep IM injection in the gluteal or deltoid muscle. Depo-Provera should not be used as a long-term birth control method (i.e. longer than 2 years) unless other birth control methods are considered inadequate. Dosage does not need to be adjusted for body weight.
The Sayana Press currently costs $1.50 a dose, but due to subsidies from the Gates Foundation and other groups such as the United States Agency for International Development, it will now cost less than a dollar.
This particular drug will be available in pre-packaged capsule syringes and the product is already being used in several African countries, unlike the generic Depo-Provera shot, the injection from the Sayana Press can be performed at home, allowing women to use contraception without having to travel to a health clinic every few months. This method was introduced in Burkina Faso, Niger, and Bangladesh at the beginning of this summer.
In a conference call with media, John Young, in charge of Pfizer’s array of generic medicines said, “It’s a simple way to increase access to women who want contraception, in a setting where there may be limited healthcare systems. This is a great example of applying innovation to a Pfizer heritage product to help broaden access to family planning”.
It was estimated that between 2003 and 2012, the number of women who wanted contraception rose to 867 million from 716 million but the supply isn’t keeping up with the demand, and by 2015, more than 230 million women will not have access to birth control. Also 47,000 women die from unsafe abortions alone each year, while around 800 women die from pregnancy complications every day.
Pfizer and the Gates Foundation’s partnership is not the first attempt to make reproductive health more accessible in developing countries. In 2013, two pharmaceutical companies dropped the price of their HPV vaccine to $4.50 per dose to make it more accessible to women in poor countries. In 2012, Bayer cut the price of its contraception implants in half for 27 million women in developing countries. Earlier this year, the Gates Foundation donated over $4 million to fund the creation of implantable contraception that would last 16 years.

Author : Toshit

Transparent Mice Offer a Front-Row Seat to Inner Anatomy

Biologists have long wished for superhero-like X-ray vision to see right into organs or even the whole the body. Imagine the possibilities: watching where cancer cells go when they metastasize, tracking an asthma drug’s effect on the lung’s airways, or zeroing in on neurons in the brain.

(Credit: Yang et. al, Cell)

(Credit: Yang et. al, Cell)

A team of researchers at the California Institute of Technology have realized that dream of peering deep into the body. In a study published yesterday in the journal Cell, they demonstrate how to turn organs, and even bodies, into see-through “windows to the body” while keeping cellular structures and connections intact.

See-Through Organs

What makes tissues opaque are lipids, so the first step is to remove them. But how do you expunge the lipids without damaging the basic structure of the tissue or its nerves and other vital properties? Viviana Gradinaru and her collaborators had already developed a “brain-clearing” technique called CLARITY, which involves embedding tissue into hydrogels to preserve its outer shape and then using detergents to scour out the lipids, leaving behind a clear shell. In the study, performed on euthanized mice and rats, researchers upped the ante considerably by showing how CLARITY can be used to lay bare not just bits of tissue, but entire organs and even bodies.

First, they figured out which kind of hydrogel allows detergents to do their lipid-clearing job the fastest. Then they discovered that by delivering the hydrogel and clearing detergents into the bloodstream of the rodents, they could speed up the clearing process without causing tissue damage. The detergents swept through the tissues and completely “clarified” organs such as the kidney, heart, lung, and intestine within 2 to 3 days. Within two weeks, the whole brain and entire body also cleared.

Encouraged, Gradinaru and her team decided to test the new method on human tissue. “We actually made a biopsy sample for a skin cancer patient, and we were able to detect two more cells throughout the tissue,” Gradinaru told Discover.

Purging the lipids provides researchers with a clear view of what’s going on deep within the organ or body. Think of watching a concert from the front row instead of the nose-bleed section.

Mapping Cell Connections

The new transparency method, combined with techniques that allow for the “staining” of cells, will allow researchers to make three-dimensional maps of the connections between the cells within organs, such as the lining of the airways in the lungs or neurons connecting different parts of the brain. That’s crucial for understanding the complex, long-distance cellular interactions that play an important role in a range of biological processes, from cancer to nerve degeneration.

And since the method uses readily available, inexpensive equipment and clearing agents, researchers across the globe will be able to use the protocol to make “subcellular interrogations,” as the paper puts it.

“I hope it will be used,” Gradinaru says. “We are very happy to help labs get this up and running.

By  April Reese

Source: discovermagazine.com

New Drug Inspired by Ibuprofen Protects Against Flu

Study was that researchers were able to isolate just one: prostaglandin E2 or PGE2, which they found to be most directly connected to the flu. Researchers gave mice drugs to block PGE2 production, and then gave them a lethal dose of H1N1 virus. Twelve days later, the mice had lower levels of the virus 6977176961_f98a249789_min their lungs, showed better immune responses, and were more likely to survive the flu when compared to the control mice.

The results, published in the journal Immunity today, suggest that targeting the PGE2 molecule specifically will lead to more effective protection against the flu. Plus the drugs to block PGE2 already exist, so researchers say they shouldn’t be too far from clinical trials.

By Breanna Draxler

Source: discovermagazine.com

Newly Discovered Antibiotic is a Bacterial Triple Threat

In the fight against infectious bacteria, humans are slowly losing the battle. That’s because common pathogens are developing resistance 6268871099_27b1a445e9_zto the antibiotics we use to wipe them out. By 2050 it’s expected that, globally, drug-resistant infections will kill more people than cancer.

However, the fight is far from over. Researchers have discovered a potential new class of antibiotic that’s a triple threat: it obliterates many types of drug-resistant bacteria, it’s safe in mammals, and enemy cells weren’t easily able to develop resistance to it. And the microbes that produce it were discovered in the soil of one of the study authors’ backyards.

Digging in the Dirt

Through billions of years of evolution microbes have evolved to produce a variety of antibiotics to battle their fellow bugs. And in the past, studying chemicals excreted by microbes has been a fruitful path to discovering new antibiotics. But astonishingly, microbiologists only work with about 1 percent of the microbial species found in the wild; the other 99 percent are finicky and refuse to grow in the lab. That’s part of the reason researchers haven’t discovered a new class of antibiotics in almost 30 years.

In this latest study, the scientists found a clever workaround. They collected soil samples and used a device called an iChip to isolate single strains of bacteria. Then, rather than raising them in the lab, researchers put the bacteria back in the ground to replicate. They screened more than 10,000 of these isolated bacteria samples to see how they performed in battling Staphylococcus aureus. And the runaway winner — a bacteria named Eleftheria terrae — was found to use teixobactin as its secret weapon.

Molecular Triple Threat

Teixobactin wages an attack against the cell walls of targeted bacteria to kill them. It’s the same method of extermination used by another antibiotic called vancomycin, which was discovered in 1953. Vancomycin was an old stand-by, but bacteria resistant to vancomycin eventually emerged about 40 years after its discovery. However, the specific way teixobactin attacks its enemies’ cell walls led researchers to believe it’s unlikely that bacteria will develop resistance to teixobactin in 40 years — if at all.

As encouraging as teixobactin was in the petri dish, the true test was whether it could perform safely in an animal. Researchers gave mice a nearly fatal infection of a drug-resistant form of MRSA (methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus). An hour after infection, they injected mice with a dose of teixobactin, and every single treated mouse survived. Researchers published their findings Wednesday in the journal Nature.

A Dose of Hope

The discovery of new antibiotics has stalled in recent decades, so teixobactin is a welcome newcomer to a beleaguered field. However, we won’t know whether teixobactin will emerge as a champion until rigorous clinical trials are performed in the future.

Regardless, researchers’ new method of growing and studying previously unculturable soil bacteria is a new twist that could reignite the search for novel antibiotics. In fact, researchers believe there are many more antimicrobial candidates hidden in the dirt.

Scientists will just need to get their hands dirty to turn the tables on our microbial foes.

By Carl Engelking

Source: discovermagazine.com

Single-cell expression analysis on a large scale

To understand why cells differ from each other, we need to understand which genes are transcribed at a single-cell level. Several methods measure messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in single cells, but most are limited to relatively low numbers of cells or genes. Fan et al. labeled each mRNA molecule in a cell with both a cellular barcode and a molecular barcode. Further analysis did not then require single-cell technologies. Instead, the labeled mRNA from all cells was pooled, amplified, and sequenced, and the gene expression profile of individual cells was reconstructed based on the barcodes. The technique successfully revealed heterogeneity across several thousand blood cells.